Picture 1. Yogyakarta Province map
Yogyakarta is the special province in Indonesia. It is located at southern of Merapi Mount. Yogyakarta divided by Progo River and Opak River in outer range. Lava from Merapi always flows along these rivers. There are five regency / municipality. The regencies are Sleman regency, Kulon Progo regency, Gunung Kidul regency and Bantul regency. The only one municipality is Jogjakarta, that also as capital city of Yogyakarta Special Region Province. Before become a province ot was a part of Vorstenlanden.
History of Yogyakarta Special Region always be related with the kingdom of Mataram. The Kingdom of Mataram was built by Sutawijaya. Sutawijaya was a son of Ki Ageng Pemanahan. He has killed Aryo Penangsang, the enemy of Pajang Kingdom. Pajang Kingdom has given him land that was named Mentaok Forest. Sutawijaya worked hardly to build a kingdom. After he was become a king, he have a tittle Panembahan Senopati. The glorious of Kingdom Mataram was happened when it was handled by Raden Mas Rangsang who was also popular with the tittle Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo. The authority was large through over Java island and a part of Sumatera island.
The influence of Mataram authority could be larger again if no VOC here. VOC (Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie) has occupied many authority region of Mataram Kingdom. Sultan Agung was very angry so he arranged some strategy to attacked VOC. He attacked VOC in Batavia (Jakarta City now), in 1628 and 1629, unfortunately it was failed. VOC burnt food resources of Mataram. Many Mataram soldiers was hungry and no power to attacked in the war with VOC.
After the death of Sultan Agung in 1645, Mataram authority was weaker and weaker, and The Dutch presser was stronger and larger. The Prince of Sultan Agung grandchild were confronted one with another. In the case Dutch always become the third party and got the advantages from the disputes.
Sultan Amangkurat II the grandson of Sultan Agung still could handle his government. Other dispute was occured between Sunan Mas (Sunan Amangkurat III) and Prince Puger. Prince Puger then proclaimed himself to be Sunan Pakubuwono I. At the same time Mataram power faded out since Dutch always tried to divide it by all means.
Sunan Paku Buwono III (the son of Paku Buwono II) was promoted by Dutchto be a Mataram administrator. The instalation made Prince Mangkubumi (The brother of Sunan Paku Buwono II) was disappointed and choosed to back to Ngayogyakarta because of unsatisfied policies of Sunan Pakubuwono and Dutch interference in organizing Mataram. It event again caused a conflict in Mataram. Prince Mangkubumi supported by Raden Mas Said tried to fight against the Dutch (VOC).
Mataram was divided into two region, according Giyanti aggrement on February 1755. Sunan Pakubuwono III ruled the Surakarta Hadiningrat. Prince Mangkubumi reined a new Kingdom, Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. Then, Prince Mangkubumi was titled Sultan Hamengku Buwana I. Raden Mas said was finally recognized as the prince who held the power in Mangkunegaran and was called Pangeran Aryo Adipati Mangkunagoro. Until now Mataram broke into two and people in Projo Kejawen (Surakarta and Yogyakarta) suffered more and more.