Mataram has divided by three region, Yogyakarta Hadiningrat, Surakarta Hadiningrat and Mangkunegara. Colonialist always be succesfull to break a kingdom.
After Prince Mangkubumi became as King / Sultan of Ngayogyakarto Palace, he worked hardly to his Kingdom progession. He is designer of the big kingdom who still exist until now. He built city with philosophy design. If we see a map of Yogyakarta province, we can find imaginer line from Merapi mountain – White Paal (Tugu) – Kraton (Palace) – South Ocean. Its have kosmologic meanings. He always been held Hamemayu hayuning Bawana and Golong Gilig. Hamemayu Hayuning Bawana always been related with balance relationship between God, people, nature. Golong Gilig was related with partnership between Kingdom government with people to attacked colonialist.
Picture 1. Merapi MountainPicture 2. White Pal (Toegoe Poetih)
The cruelty of Governor General Daendels made people hate him so much. As a matter of the fact, his action was not allowed by Dutchitself. When England attacked Java island, Javanese people even help England because besided Raffles which also interfered Javanese kingdoms just like what Dutch did. Raffles considered that Sultan of Yogyakarta didnot help England for he did not obey an agreement made by Raffles. For this reason he was forced to give up the throne. In colonialist terms, Javanese have dualism government, Kingdom government and Colonialist government. Kingdom government who still have knight spirits always tried to protected people from colonialist policy who could make people in deepsadness.
In the mean time the territory of Sultan Hamengku Buwono III, Hamengku Buwono I’s successor was reduced because there was new state. Hamengku Buwana I was have stepson that named Prince Notokusumo. Prince Notokusumo (Sultan HB II brother) was smart and lovefull to Sultan Hamengku Buwana I, so that Sultan love so much to him. Finally Prince Notokusumo was given by Sultan HB I a region. The region was called Kadipaten Pakualaman. The new state was Kadipaten Pakualaman with Prince Notokusumo who titled Adipati Pakualam I.
The territories comprised four regions in Adikarto, Kulon Progo and one in Yogyakarta.
Even though Yogyakarta Sultanate and Kadipaten Pakualaman were kingdoms and government which had authonomy to handle their own business, they were not independent at all. It was because Dutch had a right to interfere. Since Mataram broke in 1755 all the government heads, even Sultan, Sunan or Adipati in Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman were required to sign a political contract was legislated in Staatblad 1941 number 47 and contract for Kadipaten Pakualaman was in Stb 1941 number 577. After the second world war, the Dutch went out from Indonesia, both of them free from the political contract.
From the story above that Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta and Kadipaten Pakualaman had a same chance to rule their autonomies.